A one-way analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the relationship between listening to preferred music during heart catheterization and pacemaker implantation and anxiety levels. The independent variable, the music listening factor, included two levels: no music or preferred music. The dependent variable was the change in the amount of anxiety from pre to post surgery. Four subjects, two from each level of the independent variable, were removed from the study. One subject did not receive any of the standard sedation. Another subject experienced a tape player malfunction which stopped his music listening. In the non-music listening group, one patient received double the amount of standard sedation, while another subject was not asked the STAI questions according to the proper procedure. Mean anxiety scores for the remaining subjects are shown in Table 1.
The ANOVA was significant, F (1,17) = 5.55, p = .032. The results of the one-way ANOVA supported the hypothesis that preferred, sedative music listening during heart catheterization and pacemaker implant surgery had an effect on state anxiety levels in male patients between the ages of 40 and 90 years.